Molecular Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Detoxification and Accumulation in Plants

Summary

Soils and waters with high levels of toxic heavy metal(loid)s such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury are detrimental to human and environmental health. These three metal(loid)s are among the Superfund's top 7 priority hazardous substances.  Research and applications indicate that uptake of heavy metals into plants via the root system and accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoots could provide a cost effective approach for toxic metal removal and remediation of heavy metal-laden soils and waters.  However important genes and pathways that function in heavy metal over-accumulation in plants remain to be identified.  In recent research we have made major advances at understanding key mechanisms that function in heavy metal detoxification, transport and accumulation in plants. We will combine powerful genomic, genetic, biochemical   and physiological approaches to test new central hypotheses by pursuing the following Specific Aims:

I.   Characterize newly identified vacuolar membrane transporters that function in uptake and accumulation of phytochelatin-heavy metal(loid) complexes into plant vacuoles and analyze their bioremediation potential.

II.  Understanding the control of heavy metal accumulation and distribution in roots and shoots is critical for engineering of plants for bioremediation. Determine the mechanisms by which a new peptide transporter mutant, opt3, causes hyper-accumulation in roots and under-accumulation of cadmium in plant leaves.

III.  Our recent research has shown that heavy metal-chelating and detoxifying thiols undergo long distance transport in plants. However, the plasma membrane transporters for uptake of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) remain unknown. Using a high-throughput screen we have now identified OPT4 as a putative GSH & PC-Cd transporter. We will characterize OPT4 and additional transporters to determine their underlying GSH/PC-Cd/As transport mechanisms and their functions in heavy metal distribution in plants.

IV.  The mechanisms and transcription factors that mediate rapid heavy metal-induced gene expression in plants remain largely unknown, but are important for heavy metal resistance and accumulation. The genes of newly isolated mutants impaired in cadmium-induced gene expression will be identified and their functions characterized. Furthermore, a potent genome-wide approach has been developed and will be pursued to identify and characterize key transcription factors and repressors that control cadmium- and arsenic-induced gene expression. We will work closely with the RTC and CEC in sharing our advances and foremost in translational analyses of our findings for their potential in phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters. 

Roots from Arabidopsis plants that accumulate metals bind to phytochelatins, which are engineered to fluoresce upon association with metals.

Roots from Arabidopsis plants that accumulate metals bind to phytochelatins, which are engineered to fluoresce upon association with metals.

Publication

PubMed Central ID: 

Aleman F., Yazaki J., Lee M., Takahashi Y., Kim A.Y., Li Z., Kinoshita T., Ecker J.R., Schroeder J.I. (2016) An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling. Sci Rep. 6:28941. doi: 10.1038/srep28941.

PubMedID: 27357749
PubMed Central ID: 

Yazaki J., Galli M., Kim A.Y., Nito K., Aleman F., Chang K.N., Carvunis A.R., Quan R., Nguyen H., Song L., Alvarez J.M., Huang S.S., Chen H., Ramachandran N., Altmann S., Gutiérrez R.A., Hill D.E., Schroeder J.I., Chory J., LaBaer J., Vidal M., Braun P., Ecker J.R. (2016) Mapping transcription factor interactome networks using HaloTag protein arrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 113:E4238-47.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1603229113.

PubMedID: 27357687
PubMed Central ID: 

Suzuki, K., Yamaji, N., Costa, A., Okuma, E., Kobayashi, N. I., Kashiwagi, T., Katsuhara, M., Wang, C., Tanoi, K., Murata, Y., Schroeder, J. I., Ma, J. F., Horie, T. (2016) OsHKT1;4-mediated Na(+) transport in stems contributes to Na(+) exclusion from leaf blades of rice at the reproductive growth stage upon salt stress. BMC Plant Biol. 16(1), 22. doi: 10.1186/s12870-016-0709-4.

PubMedID: 26786707
PubMed Central ID: 

Yamamoto Y., Negi J., Wang C., Isogai Y., Schroeder J.I., Iba K. (2016) The Transmembrane Region of Guard Cell SLAC1 Channels Perceives CO2 Signals via an ABA-Independent Pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 28:557-67. doi: 10.1105/tpc.15.00583.

PubMedID: 26764376
PubMed Central ID: 

Wang, C., Hu, H., Qin, X., Zeise, B., Xu, D., Rappel, W.-J., Boron, W.F., Schroeder, J.I. (2016) Reconstitution of CO2 regulation of SLAC1 anion channel and function of CO2-permeable PIP2;1 aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE 4 interactor. Plant Cell. 282: 568-82. doi: 10.1105/tpc.15.00637.

PubMedID: 26764375
PubMed Central ID: 

Munemasa, S., Hauser, F., Park, J., Waadt, R., Brandt, B., Schroeder, J. I. (2015) Mechanisms of abscisic acid-mediated control of stomatal aperture. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 28, 154-162.

PubMedID: 26599955
Waadt, R., Hsu, P. K., Schroeder, J. I. (2015) Abscisic acid and other plant hormones: Methods to visualize distribution and signaling. Bioessays. 37(12),1338-49. 
PubMedID: 26577078

Engineer, C. B., Hashimoto-Sugimoto, M., Negi, J., Israelsson-Nordström, M., Azoulay-Shemer, T., Rappel, W. J., Iba, K., Schroeder, J. I. (2015) CO2 Sensing and CO2 Regulation of Stomatal Conductance: Advances and Open Questions. Trends Plant Sci. pii: S1360-1385(15)00229-0.

PubMedID: 26482956
PubMed Central ID: 

Zhang Z., Xie Q., Jobe T.O., Kau A.R., Wang C., Li Y., Qiu B., Wang Q., Mendoza-Cózatl D.G., Schroeder J.I. (2016) Identification of AtOPT4 as a plant glutathione transporter. Mol Plant. 9: 481-4. doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2015.07.013.

PubMedID: 26283048
PubMed Central ID: 

Brandt, B., Munemasa, S., Wang, C., Nguyen, D., Yong, T., Yang, P. G., Poretsky, E., Belknap, T. F., Waadt, R., Alemán, F., Schroeder, J. I. (2015) Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells. Elife.doi: 10.7554/eLife.03599

PubMedID: 26192964

Azoulay-Shemer, T., Palomares, A., Bagheri, A., Israelsson-Nordstrom, M., Engineer, C. B., Bargmann, B. O., Stephan, A. B., Schroeder, J. I. (2015) Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing. Plant J. 83(4), 567-81.

PubMedID: 26096271

Keinath, N. F., Waadt, R., Brugman, R., Schroeder, J. I., Grossmann, G., Schumacher, K., Krebs, M. (2015) Live Cell Imaging with R-GECO1 Sheds Light on flg22- and Chitin-Induced Transient [Ca(2+)]cyt Patterns in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. 8(8),1188-200.

PubMedID: 26002145
PubMed Central ID: 

Engineer, C. B., Ghassemian, M., Anderson, J. C., Peck, S. C., Hu, H., Schroeder, J. I. (2014) Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development. Nature. 513(7517), 246-50.

PubMedID: 25043023
PubMed Central ID: 

Mendoza-Cózatl, D.G., Xie, Q., Akmakjian, G. Z., Jobe, T. O., Patel, A., Stacey, M. G., Song, L., Demoin, D. W., Jurisson, S. S., Stacey, G., Schroeder, J. I. (2014) OPT3 is a component of the iron-signaling network between leaves and roots and misregulation of OPT3 leads to an over-accumulation of cadmium in seeds. Mol Plant. 7(9), 1455-69.

PubMedID: 24880337
PubMed Central ID: 

Kunz, H. H., Gierth, M., Herdean, A., Satoh-Cruz, M., Kramer, D. M., Spetea, C., Schroeder, J. I. (2014) Plastidial transporters KEA1, -2, and -3 are essential for chloroplast osmoregulation, integrity, and pH regulation in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111(20), 7480-5.

PubMedID: 24794527
PubMed Central ID: 
Stephan, A. B., Schroeder, J. I. (2014) Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 111(17), 6126-7.
PubMedID: 24737890
PubMed Central ID: 
Waadt, R., Hitomi, K., Nishimura, N., Hitomi, C., Adams, S. R., Getzoff, E. D., Schroeder, J. I. (2014) FRET-based reporters for the direct visualization of abscisic acid concentration changes and distribution in Arabidopsis.
Elife. 3, e01739.
PubMedID: 24737861
PubMed Central ID: 

Deinlein, U., Stephan, A. B., Horie, T., Luo, W., Xu, G., Schroeder, J. I. (2014) Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms. Trends Plant Sci. 19(6), 371-379.

PubMedID: 24630845
PubMed Central ID: 

Song, W. Y., Mendoza-Cózatl, D. G., Lee, Y., Schroeder, J. I., Ahn, S. N., Lee, H. S., Wicker, T., Martinoia, E. (2014) Phytochelatin-metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environ. 37(5), 1192-201.

PubMedID: 24313707
PubMed Central ID: 

Hauser, F., Chen, W., Deinlein, U., Chang, K., Ossowski, S., Fitz, J., Hannon, G. J., Schroeder, J. I. (2013) A genomic-scale artificial microRNA library as a tool to investigate the functionally redundant gene space in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 25(8), 2848-63.

PubMedID: 23956262
PubMed Central ID: 

McDowell, S. C., Akmakjian, G., Sladek, C., Mendoza-Cozatl, D., Morrissey, J. B., Saini, N., Mittler, R., Baxter, I., Salt, D. E., Ward, J. M., Schroeder, J. I., Guerinot, M. L., Harper, J. F. (2013) Elemental concentrations in the seed of mutants and natural variants of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under varying soil conditions. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063014.

PubMedID: 23671651
PubMed Central ID: 

Schroeder, J. I., Delhaize, E., Frommer, W. B., Guerinot, M. L., Harrison, M. J., Herrera-Estrella, L., Horie, T., Kochian, L. V., Munns, R., Nishizawa, N. K., Tsay, Y. F., Sanders, D. (2013) Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production. Nature. 497(7447), 60-6.

PubMedID: 23636397

Jobe, T. O., Sung, D. Y., Akmakjian, G., Pham, A., Komives, E. A., Mendoza-Cózatl, D. G., Schroeder, J. I. (2012) Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient γ-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation. Plant J. 70(5), 783-95.

PubMedID: 22283708
PubMed Central ID: 

Xue, S., Yao, X., Luo, W., Jha, D., Tester, M., Horie, T., Schroeder, J. I. (2011) AtHKT1;1 mediates nernstian sodium channel transport properties in Arabidopsis root stelar cells. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024725

PubMedID: 21931830
PubMed Central ID: 

Mendoza-Cózatl, D.G., Jobe, T. O., Hauser, F., Schroeder, J. I. (2011) Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration, tolerance, and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 14(5), 554-62.

PubMedID: 21820943
PubMed Central ID: 

Jannat, R., Uraji, M., Morofuji, M., Islam, M. M., Bloom, R. E., Nakamura, Y., McClung, C. R., Schroeder, J. I., Mori, I. C., Murata, Y. (2011) Roles of intracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation in abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis guard cells. J Plant Physiol. 168(16),1919-26.

PubMedID: 21665322
PubMed Central ID: 

Horie, T., Brodsky, D. E., Costa, A., Kaneko, T., Lo Schiavo, F., Katsuhara, M., Schroeder, J. I. (2011) K+ transport by the OsHKT2;4 transporter from rice with atypical Na+ transport properties and competition in permeation of K+ over Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Plant Physiol. 156(3), 1493-507.

PubMedID: 21610181
PubMed Central ID: 

​Hauser, F. Waadt, R. & Schroeder, J. I. (2011) Evolution of abscisic acid synthesis and signaling mechanisms. Curr Biol. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.015.

PubMedID: 21549957
PubMed Central ID: 

Böhmer, M. & Schroeder, J. I. (2011) Quantitative transcriptomic analysis of ABA-induced and ROSdependent expression changes and proteomic profiling in Arabidopsis suspension cells. Plant Journal. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04579.x. 

PubMedID: 21426425
PubMed Central ID: 

Song, W. Y., Park, J., Mendoza-Cózatl, D.G., Suter-Grotemeyer, M., Shim, D., Hörtensteiner, S., Geisler, M., Weder, B., Rea, P. A., Rentsch, D., Schroeder, J. I., Lee, Y., Martinoia, E. (2010) Arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis is mediated by two ABCC-type phytochelatin transporters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 107, 21187-92.

PubMedID: 21078981
PubMed Central ID: 

Mendoza-Cózatl, D. G., Zhai, Z, Jobe, T. O., Akmakjian, G. Z., Song, W. Y., Limbo, O., Russell, M. R., Kozlovskyy, V. I., Martinoia, E., Vatamaniuk, O. K., Russell, P., Schroeder, J. I. (2010) Tonoplast-localized Abc2 transporter mediates phytochelatin accumulation in vacuoles and confers cadmium tolerance. J Biol Chem. 285(52), 40416-26.

PubMedID: 20937798
PubMed Central ID: 

Costa, A., Drago, I., Behera, S., Zottini, M., Pizzo, P., Schroeder, J. I., Pozzan, T., Schiavao, F. L. (2010) H(2)O(2) in plant peroxisomes: an in vivo analysis uncovers a Ca(2+)-dependent scavenging system. Plant J. 62(5), 760-772.

PubMedID: 20230493
PubMed Central ID: 

Kim, T. H., Bohmer, M., Hu, H., Nishimura, N., Schroeder, J. I. (2010) Guard cell signal transduction network: advances in understanding Abscisic acid, CO2, and Ca2+ signaling. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 61, 561-91.

PubMedID: 20192751
PubMed Central ID: 

Yao, X., Horie, T., Xue, S., Leung, H. Y., Katsuhara, M., Brodsky, D. E., Wu, Y. & Schroeder, J. I. (2010) Differential sodium and potassium transport selectivities of the rice OsHKT2;1 and OsHKT2;2 transporters in plant cells. Plant Physiol. 152, 341-55.

PubMedID: 19889878
PubMed Central ID: 

Nishimura, N., Sarkeshik, A., Nito, K., Park, S. Y., Wang, A., Carvalho, P. C., Lee, S., Caddell, D. F., Cutler, S. R., Chory, J., Yates, J. R., Schroeder, J. I. (2010) PYR/PYL/RCAR family members are major in-vivo ABI1 protein phosphatase 2C-interacting proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 61, 290-299.

PubMedID: 19874541
PubMed Central ID: 

Horie, T., Hauser, F., Schroeder, J. I. (2009)  HKT transporter-mediated salinity resistance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and monocot crop plants. Trends Plant Sci. 14, 660-668. 

PubMedID: 19783197
PubMed Central ID: 

Sung, D. Y., Kim, T. H., Komives, E. A., Mendoza-Cózatl, D. G., Schroeder, J. I. (2009)  ARS5 is a component of the 26S proteasome complex, and negatively regulates thiol biosynthesis and arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 59(5), 802-13.

PubMedID: 19453443
PubMed Central ID: 

Nishimura, N., Hitomi, K., Arvai, A. S., Rambo, R. P., Hitomi, C., Cutler, S. R., Schroeder, J. I., Getzoff, E. D. (2009) Structural mechanism of abscisic acid binding and signaling by dimeric PYR1. Science. 326(5958), 1373-9.

PubMedID: 19933100

Ward, J. M., Mäser, P., Schroeder, J. I. (2009)  Plant ion channels: gene families, physiology, and functional genomics analyses. Annu Rev Physio. 71, 59-82.

PubMedID: 18842100
PubMed Central ID: 

Kim, Y. Y., Kim, D. Y., Shim, D., Song, W. Y., Lee, J., Schroeder, J. I., Kim, S., Moran, N., Lee Y. (2008)  Expression of the Novel Wheat Gene TM20 Confers Enhanced Cadmium Tolerance to Bakers Yeast. J Biol Chem. 283, 15893-15892.

PubMedID: 18411273
PubMed Central ID: 

Vahisalu, T., Kollist, H., Wang, Y. F., Nishimura, N., Chan, W. Y., Valerio, G., Lamminmaki, A., Brosche, M., Moldau, H., Desikan, R., Schroeder, J. I., Kangasjarvi, J. (2008) SLAC1 is required for plant guard cell S‐type anion channel function in stomatal signalling. Nature. 452, 487‐91.

PubMedID: 18305484
PubMed Central ID: 

Mendoza-Cozatl, D. G., Butko, E., Springer, F., Torpey, J. W., Komives, E. A., Kehr, J., Schroeder, J. I. (2008)  Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation. Plant Journal. 54,  249-59.

PubMedID: 18208526
PubMed Central ID: 

Sadi, B. B., Vonderheide, A. P., Gong, J. M., Schroeder, J. I., Shann, J. R. & Caruso, J. A. (2008) An HPLC-ICP-MS technique for determination of cadmium-phytochelatins in genetically modified Arabidopsis thaliana. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 861,123-9.

PubMedID: 18065298
PubMed Central ID: 

Imaizumi, T., Kay, S. A., Schroeder, J. I. (2007) Circadian rhythms. Daily watch on metabolism. Science. 318, 730-1731.

PubMedID: 18006706
PubMed Central ID: 

Imaizumi, T., Schroeder, J. I., Kay, S. A. (2007) In SYNC: the ins and outs of circadian oscillations in calcium. Sci STKE. 390, pe32

PubMedID: 17565121
PubMed Central ID: 

Horie, T., Costa, A., Kim, T. H., Han, M. H., Horie, R., Leung, H. Y., Miyao, A., Hirochika, H., An, G. and Schroeder, J.I. (2007) Rice OsHKT2;1 transporter mediates large Na+ influx component into K+-starved roots for growth. EMBO J. 26, 3003-3014.

PubMedID: 17541409

Sung, D. Y., Lee, D., Harris, H., Raab, A., Feldmann, J., Meharg, A., Kumabe, B., Komives, E. A., Schroeder, J. I. (2007)  Identification of an arsenic tolerant double mutant with a thiol-mediated component and increased arsenic tolerance in phyA mutants. Plant J49, 1064-107.

PubMedID: 17335514

Schroeder, J. I., Nambara, E. (2006) A quick release mechanism for abscisic acid. Cell. 126, 1023-1025.

PubMedID: 16990126

Platten, J. D., Cotsaftis, O., Berthomieu, P., Bohnert, H., Davenport, R. J., Fairbairn, D. J., Horie, T., Leigh, R.A., Lin, H. X., Luan, S., Maser, P., Pantoja, O., Rodriguez-Navarro, A., Schachtman, D. P., Schroeder, J. I., Sentenac, H., Uozumi, N., (2006) Very AA, Zhu JK, Dennis ES, Tester M. Nomenclature for HKT transporters, key determinants of plant salinity tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. 11, 372-374.

PubMedID: 16809061
PubMed Central ID: 

Kwak, J. M., Nguyen, V., Schroeder, J. I. (2006) The role of reactive oxygen species in hormonal responses. Plant Physiology. 141, 323-329.

PubMedID: 16760482
PubMed Central ID: 

Chen, A., Komives, E. A., Schroeder, J. I. (2006) An improved grafting technique for mature Arabidopsis plants demonstrates long-distance shoot-to-root transport of phytochelatins in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology. 141, 108-120.

PubMedID: 16531489

Schroeder, J. I., Kuhn, J. M. (2006) Plant biology abscisic acid in bloom. Nature. 439, 277-278.

PubMedID: 16421556

Sunarpi, Horie, T., Motoda, J., Kubo, M., Yang, H., Yoda, K., Horie, R., Chan, W., Leung, H. Y., Hattori, K., Konomi, M., Osumi, M., Yamagami, M., *Schroeder, J. I., *Uozumi, N. (* corresponding authors) (2005)  Enhanced salt tolerance mediated by AtHKT1 transporter-induced Na+ unloading from xylem parenchyma cells. Pl Journal. 44, 928-938.

PubMedID: 16359386

Li, Y., Dhankher, O. P., Carreira, L., Lee, D., Chen, A., Schroeder, J. I., Balish, R. S., Meagher, R. B. (2004) Overexpression of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis leads to enhanced arsenic tolerance and cadmium hypersensitivity. Plant Cell Physiol. 45, 1787-1797.

PubMedID: 15653797

Wycisk, K., Kim, E. J., Schroeder, J. I., Kramer, U. (2004) Enhancing the First Enzymatic Step in Histidine Biosynthesis Pathway Increases the Free Histidine Pool and Nickel Tolerance in Arabidosis Thaliana. FEBS Letters. 578, 128-134.

PubMedID: 15581629
PubMed Central ID: 

Gong, J. M., Waner, D. A., Horie, T., Li, S. L., Horie, R., Abid, K. B., Schroeder, J. I. (2004) Microarray-based rapid cloning of an ion accumulation deletion mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 101, 15404-15409.

PubMedID: 15486089
PubMed Central ID: 

Mori, I. and Schroeder, J. I. (2004)  Reactive Oxygen Species Activation of Plant Ca2+ Channels: A Signaling Mechanism in Polar Growth, Hormone Transduction, Stress Signaling, and Hypothetically Mechano-transduction. Plant Physiology 135(2), 702-708.

PubMedID: 15208417

Lee, D. A., Chen, A., Schroeder, J. I. (2003) ars1, an Arabidopsis mutant exhibiting increased tolerance to arsenate and increased phosphate uptake. Plant J. 35(5), 637-46.

PubMedID: 12940956
PubMed Central ID: 

Gong, J. M., Lee, D. A., Schroeder, J. I. (2003) Long-distance root-to-shoot transport of phytochelatins and cadmium in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 100(17), 10118-23.

PubMedID: 12909714

Mäser, P., Eckelman, B., Vaidyanathan, R., Horie, T., Fairbairn, D. J., Kubo, M., Yamagami, M., Yamaguchi, K., Nishimura, M., Uozumi, N., Robertson, W., Sussman, M. R., Schroeder, J. I. (2002) Altered shoot/root Na+ distribution and bifurcating salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis by genetic disruption of the Na+ transporter AtHKT1. FEBS Lett. 531(2), 157-61.

PubMedID: 12417304
PubMed Central ID: 

Allen, G. J., Murata, Y., Chu, S. P., Nafisi, M., Schroeder, J. I. (2002) Hypersensitivity of abscisic acid-induced cytosolic calcium increases in the Arabidopsis farnesyltransferase mutant era1-2. Plant Cell. 14(7), 1649-62.

PubMedID: 12119381
PubMed Central ID: 

Mäser, P., Hosoo, Y., Goshima, S., Horie, T., Eckelman, B., Yamada, K., Yoshida, K., Bakker, E. P., Shinmyo, A., Oiki, S., Schroeder, J. I., Uozumi, N. (2002) Glycine residues in potassium channel-like selectivity filters determine potassium selectivity in four-loop-per-subunit HKT transporters from plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99(9), 6428-33.

PubMedID: 11959905

Ghassemian, M., Waner, D., Tchieu, J., Gribskov, M., Schroeder, J. I. (2001) An integrated Arabidopsis annotation database for Affymetrix Genechip data analysis, and tools for regulatory motif searches. Trends Plant Sci. 6(10), 448-9.

PubMedID: 11590042

Clemens, S., Schroeder, J. I., Degenkolb, T. (2001) Caenorhabditis elegans expresses a functional phytochelatin synthase. Eur J Biochem. 268(13), 3640-3.

PubMedID: 11432729

Main Contact Information

Project Leader

  • Dr. Julian I. Schroeder

Superfund Related Project Members

  • Aaron Stephan, Post-Doctoral Scholar
  • Andrew Cooper, Graduate Student
  • Andrew Kai, Masters Student
  • Cawas Engineer, Project Scientist

Resources

Schroeder Laboratory

UCSD Division of Biological Sciences

Food & Fuel for the 21st Century

References From PubMed (NCBI)

Julian I. Schroeder, Ph.D.
University of California, San Diego
Division of Biology
9500 Gilman Drive , Mail Code 0116
La Jolla, CA 92093-0116
P: 858-534-7759 F: 858-534-7108
E-mail: jischroeder@ucsd.edu

Contact

UCSD Superfund Research Center
University of California, San Diego
Pharmacology Department
9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0722
La Jolla, CA 92093-0722